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Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung disease involves a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and progressive scarring of the interstitium (the space around the air sacs of the lungs). Exchange of gasses occurs in the interstitium. The scarring, called pulmonary fibrosis, disrupts this process making it difficult for the oxygen to pass into the bloodstream. This scarring is irreversible, and thus, the disease calls for an early diagnosis to prevent further progression.

Signs & Symptoms

Shortness of breath and dry cough is the most common symptom. These are progressive symptoms and exacerbate with time. Patients may have shortness of breath at rest or with physical exertion. Weight loss, fatigue, muscle and joint pain can also occur depending on the cause.

Patients with advanced ILD may have:

  • Clubbing of nails: Abnormal enlargement of the nail bed and softening of nails.
  • Cyanosis: Bluish discoloration of the nails, lips and skin due to low oxygen concentration.
  • Abnormal chest sounds
  • Symptoms of the associated disease or underlying cause are also present.

Risk factors

  • Age: Predominantly affects adults; infants and children are less commonly affected.
  • Family history
  • Smoking: May increase the likelihood of having some forms of ILD.

Lung Transplantation

If the other treatment options fail to limit the progression of the disease and improve symptoms, a lung transplant is seen as the last resort. A successful lung transplant depends on a variety of factors such as age and general health of the patient. Immunosuppressive drugs such as Azathioprine, are given to increase body’s acceptability of the transplant. A recent research states that the survival rate for one year after lung transplantation is 79 per cent, and for five years it is 53 per cent. The survival rate for 10 years is 30 per cent.

Oxygen Therapy

Oxygen level may fall as the disease progresses and may warrant oxygen therapy. The requirement of oxygen depends upon patient to patient. Some may require it round-the-clock; some may need it during sleep or physical work. It relieves the pressure on the lungs improving symptoms like breathlessness and cough.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

This programme primarily focuses on improving the quality of life by reducing symptoms of the disease, promoting the self-management, improving exercise tolerance, decreasing hospital stay, managing emotional well-being of the patient.

It includes:

  • A physical exercise programme designed specifically for the patient
  • Patient education
  • Breathing techniques to manage breathlessness
  • Psychosocial support

Self-Management

This is a chronic disease which can cause physical and emotional challenges. Follow the below steps to manage the condition effectively:

  • Stop smoking
  • Eat a well-balanced diet
  • Take emotional support from family, friends and disease groups
  • Consider rehabilitation program